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How to use the Linux top command (and understand its output)



  A terminal prompt on a Linux laptop.
Fatmawati Achmad Zaenuri / Shutterstock

The Linux top command is one of the strengths of Unix-like operating systems. The utilitarian display is packed with useful information about your system's running processes and resource usage. But did you know that it also supports color, highlighting and even basic graphics?

An information-packed dashboard

The top command has been around since 1

984 and there are many variations of it. For this article we use Ubuntu 18.04 with all patches applied and version 3.3.12 of top . We've also referred to everything on two other test computers, one running Fedora and the other Manjaro.

The default top shows as much information as possible in the terminal window. Information is a necessary prerequisite for administration, so this is a good thing. One of the hallmarks of a good system administrator is the ability to identify emerging issues and deal with them before they affect the service. top gives you a dashboard with many different system statistics to help you with that.

The screen can best be described as functional rather than intuitive, and there are many abbreviations. When you first encounter top it feels tight, cryptic and unpleasant. With a few keystrokes, you can tailor the content and size of the screen to what is important to you.

Check your version of top

To check which version of top you have, type the following terminal window:

  top -v 

  top -v in a terminal window.

If your version is far behind 3.3.12, it may not support all the features we are going to cover. [19659008] The default view

You can start top by typing the following and pressing "Enter":

  top 

  top in a terminal window.

The default view contains two information areas: the summary area (or dashboard) and the task area (or process list). top updates the display every three seconds by default – you will see a slight flicker if that is the case.

<img class = "alignnone wp-image-669300 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x3-3 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.cDytrrTKjh.png "alt =" the default top view in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); " onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMayayaybe

The first line of numbers on the dashboard shows the time, how long your computer has been running, and the load average over the past one, five and 15 minutes The second line shows the number of tasks and their status: running, stopped, sleeping or zombie.

The third line shows the following values ​​for the central processing unit (CPU):

  • us: Amount of time the CPU spends running processes for people in "user space".
  • sy: Amount of time spent running system "kernel space" processes.
  • ni: Amount of time spent running processes with manually set nice value.
  • id: Amount of idle CPU time.
  • wa: Amount of time the CPU waits to complete the I / O.
  • hi: Amount of time spent servicing hardware interruptions.
  • si: Amount of time spent servicing software interruptions.
  • st: Amount of time lost due to running virtual machines ("steal time").

The fourth line shows the total amount (in kibibytes) of physical memory and how much is free, used and buffered or cached.

The fifth line shows the total number (also in kibibytes) of swap memory and how much is free, used and available. The latter contains memory that is expected to be recoverable from caches.

The column headings in the process list are as follows:

  • PID: Process ID.
  • USER: The owner of the process
  • PR: Process priority.
  • NI: The nice value of the process.
  • VIRT: Amount of virtual memory used by the process.
  • RES: Amount of internal memory used by the process.
  • SHR: Amount of shared memory used by the process.
  • S: Status of the process. (See the list below for the values ​​this field can take.)
  • % CPU: The proportion of CPU time used by the process since the last update.
  • % MEM: The proportion of physical memory used.
  • TIME +: Total CPU time used by the job in hundredths of a second.
  • COMMAND: The command name or command line (name + options).

Memory values ​​are presented in kibibytes. The column COMMAND is outside the screen on the right – it didn't fit in the image above, but we'll see it soon.

The status of the process can be one of the following:

  • D: Uninterrupted Sleep
  • R: Running
  • S: Sleeping
  • T: ] Traced (stopped)
  • Z: Zombie

Press Q to exit top .

Scrolling through the screen

You can press the Up Arrow, Down Arrow, Home, End and Page Up or Down keys to move up and down and access all processes

Press the left or right arrow to move the process list sideways. This is useful for seeing all columns that do not fit within the boundaries of the terminal window.

In the image below, we pressed the right arrow a few times to see the column COMMAND .

 at the top with the process list pushed aside to reveal the command column, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

Changing the numeric units

Let's change the values ​​to 19659005). Press uppercase E to browse the units used to display memory values ​​in these options: kibibytes, mebibytes, gibibytes, tebibytes, pebibytes, and exbibytes. The unit used is the first item on lines four and five.

Press lowercase "e" to do the same for the values ​​in the process list: kibibytes, mebibytes, gibibytes, tebibytes, and pebibytes.

We pressed E to set the dashboard memory units to gibibytes and "e" to set the process list memory units to mebibytes.

<img class = "alignnone wp-image-669302 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x4-4 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.vzsXB8LGpx.png "alt =" at the top with gibibytes and mebibytes used in memory units in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); " onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndM90]

Change the contents of the overview

You can change the display settings for the rules in the dashboard or delete them completely.

Press l to enable or disable the summary load line (the first line) We have removed the summary load line in the image below

 Load summary is from above in removed a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed .lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

If you have a multi-core CPU, press change view and view individual stats for each CPU There are four CPUs on our computer We press 1 to see how hard they a lll work.

<img class = "alignnone wp-image-669305 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x7-3 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.ACJBWkIewY.png "alt =" at the top with the cpu view expanded to individual CPU stats displayed in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" /pagespeed_static/1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); 1965) takes up more screen space in the terminal window.

You can press "t" to switch the CPU screens to simple ASCII graphs that show the usage percentage for each Display CPU.

 at the top with ASCII graphs the CPU load in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed. lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBe acon (this); "onerror =" this. onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

For each CPU, top shows three digits a and the graph. From left to right, the numbers are as follows:

  • The combined us and ni percentage (user space + tasks with non-standard nice settings).
  • The sy percentage (kernel space).
  • The total (rounded to a whole number).

Press "t" again to change the graph display to solid block characters.

 at the top with ASCII block graphs showing the CPU load in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

Press "t" again to completely remove the CPU display and the job summary line.

 at the top with the CPU and task summary lines removed in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisi bleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

Press "m" to cycle through the memory and switch memory lines through different display options. The first edition replaces the statistics with an ASCII chart.

 at the top with ASCII graphs for the memory statistics, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1. JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); [eenanderegrafiekverandertin19659006]

 at the top with ASCII block graphs for the memory statistics, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages .loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

Press "m" again to completely remove the CPU lines. [19659000]] at the top with the memory and swap lines removed from the screen, in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static /1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); “/> you can

  • see CPU and memory charts at the same time. Just press "t" and "m" until you get the desired combination.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669323 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x14-3 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.UAZe2gk65m.png "alt =" top with ASCII graphics for CPU and memory, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" /pagespeed_static/1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); " onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon [83]]

    You can press" z "to add color to the display.

     top with a colored display in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadages .loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); When you [19659] top you probably don't think of colored displays and ASCII graphs, but they are built in.

    Press "y" to list running tasks in the process list Pressing "x" will highlight the column used to sort the process list. You can switch between bold and inverted text highlighting by pressing "b".

    <img class = "alignnone wp- image-669337 size-full "data-pagespeed-lazy-src =" https://www.howtogeek.com /wp-content/uploads/2020/04/xtop_17.png.pagespeed.gp+jp+jw+pj+ws+js+rj+rp+rw+ri+cp+md.ic.P7jZaO872c.png "alt =" top with running task and sorted column marked with inverted text, in a terminal window. "Width =" 644 "height =" 380 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon [this];]) Columns

    By default, the process list is sorted by the column % CPU . You can change the sort column by pressing the following:

    • P: The column % CPU .
    • M: The column % MEM . [19659022] N: The column PID .
    • T: The column TIME + .

    In the image below, the process list is sorted by the PID column.

     at the top with the process sorted by the PID column, in a terminal window. "Width =" 644 "height =" 380 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1. JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); [1965900] [1965900] "C" toggles the COMMAND column between displaying the process name and the full command line.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669359 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x22-2 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.Negh7P7qQR.png "alt =" at the top shows the complete command line in the command column, in a terminal window . "Width =" 644 "height =" 380 "src =" / p agespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages .loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); [1945] [1945] "Of processes started or spawned by other processes, press V.

    See Single User Processes

    Press" u "to enter single user processes to see. You will be asked for the name or UID.

     User prompt in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.Ald (this);

    Enter the name of the UID of the person you want to check. We type & # 39; Dave & # 39; and click & # 39; Enter & # 39 ;. Now the only processes in the user's task area are dave .

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669367 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x24-2 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.FAhe0AErtu.png "alt =" top view of a single user dave, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed. lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAnd9ayBea]] See only active tasks

    Press I to see only active tasks.

     top only shows active tasks, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src = "/ pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif" onload = "pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);" onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (1945) (Task) 1945 (33) made of 19650033 CPU sin The latest update is not displayed. </p>
<h2>  Set how many processes are displayed </h2>
<p>  Press "n" to limit the display to a certain number of lines, regardless of whether the tasks are active. In a terminal window, you are asked to specify the number of processes to display. </p><div><script async src=

  •  at the top to show the number of lines to display. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static /1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); 1965, so 10 processes appear in the task area.

     top shows ten processes in the task area, in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S .gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    Renice a Process

    r ”to change the nice value (priority) for a process. You will be asked for the process ID. Just press Enter to use the process ID of the task at the top of the process window. We are typing 7800, which happens to be the process ID of an instance of Firefox.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669383 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x28-1 .png.pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.CB5vHigK-z.png "alt =" top asks for process ID of a process, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); " onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon [23]] press Enter, you will be asked to apply the new nice value to the process. We will type 15 then press Enter.

     at the top to set a process to a nice value of 15, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1. JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed. lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    set 19651 RELATED] Process12 renice on Linux

    Kill a Process

    Press "k" to end a process, then you will be asked for the process ID you want to kill. send signal to process We are going to stop process 7879, that no more rea geert.

     at the top to request a process ID, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1 .JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); brought to you 1965 type the signal you want to send. You can specify it by name or number. If you just press Enter, top sends the SIGTERM (kill) signal.

     at the top and asks for a signal to send in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVeaBeable

    As soon as you press Enter, the signal is sent to the process.

    RELATED: Killing Processes from the Linux Terminal

    Customizing the Display

    You can also customize the colors and columns that are displayed. We are going to change the color used for prompts, the default color is red.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669455 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/35-1 .png.pagespeed.ce.u-dZP-Dj4P.png "alt =" at the top with a light red prompt in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" /pagespeed_static/1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif " onload = "pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);" onerror = "this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon [1965]] to go to the color settings page. The top part of the screen shows the colors used by the different display elements. To indicate which display element you want to change, press one of the following, which are case sensitive:

    • S : overview data area.
    • M : messages and prompts.
    • H : Column headings.
    • T : Job information in the process list.

    We press M to change the prompts.

     top color settings page with option M selected, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages .loadIfbeeaible.

    To a k To choose leur, press one of the following numbers:

    • 0: Black.
    • 1: Red.
    • 2: Green.
    • 3: Yellow.
    • 4: Blue.
    • 5: Magenta.
    • 6: Cyan.
    • 7: White.

    We press 6 to use cyan.

     top color setting window with color 6 selected, in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    Press Enter to save your settings. Prompts for input now have the color you selected.

     at the top with a cyan prompt, in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S. gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    We can also change the fields in the columns that are displayed screen. Press F to open the Fields Management screen.

     at the top with the Fields Management screen in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    Fields shown have an asterisk []) next to them and are in bold. Press the Up and Down arrows to move the highlight through the list of fields.

    If you move the marker at the bottom of a column, it will appear at the top of the next (unless you are at the bottom of the last column). If you move it from the top of a column, it will appear at the bottom of the previous one (unless you're at the top of the first column).

    We moved the marker to the COMMAND entry, then press "d" to remove the asterisk ( * ). Then we went to the entry UID and pressed "d" to place an asterisk next to that entry. This means that the column COMMAND is not displayed, but the column UID .

     at the top of the field management screen with the UID column selected in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages. loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    While the highlight is on the column UID we press "s" to sort the process list by the column UID .

     at the top of the field management screen with the UID column set as the sort column in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed .lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this);

    Press Enter to save your settings, then press "q" to exit the Fields Management screen.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669462 size-full" data-pagespeed-lazy-src = "https://www.howtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x43.png .pagespeed.gp + jp + jw + pj + ws + js + rj + rp + rw + ri + cp + md.ic.SjV4fJ5klL.png "alt =" displayed at the top with the UID column and set as the sort column in a terminal window. "width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadages .loadIfVisibleAnd00ayBea [6]] The column UID has replaced the column COMMAND and the process list is sorted by it.

    Alternate display mode

    This works best in full mode screen Press A to display four areas in the process list, then press "a" to move from area to area.

    <img class = "alignnone wp-image-669465 size-full" data-pagespeed -lazy-src = "https: //www.h owtogeek.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/x44.png.pagespeed.gp+jp+jw+pj+ws+js+rj+rp+rw+ri+cp+md.ic.x3yJWDJErs.png " alt = "at the top with the alternative screen activated in a terminal window. "Width =" 646 "height =" 382 "src =" / pagespeed_static / 1.JiBnMqyl6S.gif "onload =" pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAndMaybeBeacon (this); "onerror =" this.onerror = null; pagespeed.lazyLoadImages.loadIfVisibleAnd00ayBea [6]] Each area has a different collection of columns, but each can also be customized from the Fields Manager screen. This gives you the option to have a full screen, custom view with different information in each area, and the ability to sort each area by a different column.

    Other keystrokes

    The following are some other keys you may find useful in top :

    • W : Save your settings and customizations so that they are still in effect when you top restart.
    • d : Set a new screen refresh rate.
    • Space : Force top to refresh the screen now.

    Top Banana

    As we have seen, top ] has quite a repertoire. Other programs like htop are inspired by it, but they each have their own take on things.

    top is however installed everywhere. When you go to companies to look at networks or servers, you are often told that absolutely nothing can be changed on the live servers. The client creates the rules, so you have to use what is already installed.

    Even if you prefer to use another surveillance program, you should get to know top . Sooner or later, you're likely to be in a situation where this is all you have access to.




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